pk pd and metabolism

Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Metabolism

Over the drug dicovery process, ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination) and PK studies are deemed necessary to evaluate the bioavability, tissue distribution, active metabolite formation, and elimination of the new drug over the drug discovery process. It is essential to known the ADME properties of lead compounds in order to select those which desirable drug metabolism, pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic or safety profiles for entering in late-stage preclinical and clinical development.

Moreover, the identification of diferences in drug metabolism between animals used in nonclinical safety assessment and humans should be addressed as early as possible during the drug development process since the discovery of disproportionate drug metabolites late in drug development can potentially cause development and marketing delays.

Through our experienced team and strategic partnerships with experienced professionals in Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (DMPK) Vivotecnia can offer an innovative and solution-based ADME/DMPK screening cascade supporting your drug discovery and development program, covering from in vitro metabolic and permeability studies at the early stage to in vivo pharmacokinetic/toxicokinetic studies in rodent and non-rodent models throughtout a wide range of dosing routes.

Animal models: Rodent (Mice, Rat, Hamster, Guinea Pig) and non-rodent (rabbit, dog, minipig, NHP).

Dosing routes:

  • Oral: gavage, capsules, pills
  • Intravenous
  • Subcutaneous
  • Dermal
  • Intra-dermal
  • IntrAmuscular
  • Intraperitoneal
  • Intra-nasal
  • Intra-vaginal
  • Intra-rectal
  • Ocular
  • In vitro metabolism studies
    • Cytochrome P450 and UGT Reaction Phenotyping
    • Cytochrome P450 induction
    • Cytochrome P450 inhibition
    • Cytochrome P450 ki
    • hepatocyte Stability
    • Metabolite Profiling and Identification
    • Microsomal Binding
    • Microsomal Stability
    • Plasma Stability
    • PXR and AhR Nuclear Receptor Activation
    • S9 Stability
    • Time Dependent Inhibition (IC50 Shift)
    • Time Dependent Inhibition (kinact/KI)
    • Time Dependent Inhibition (single point)
    • UGT Inhibition
  • In vivo metabolism studies
    • In vivo Radiolabeled ADME
  • Caco-2 Permeability
  • MDR1-MDCK Permeability (P-gp substrate identification)
  • Wild type Mdck Permeability
  • P-gp Inhibition
  • BCRP Substrate Identification
  • BCRP Inhibition
  • SLC Transporter Substrate Identification
  • SLC Transporter Inhibition
  • BSEP Inhibition
  • Single and Double Transporter Knockout Cell-Based Service




  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition
  • Monoamide Oxidase Reaction Phenotyping
  • Carboxylesterase Inhibition
  • Carboxylesterase Reaction Phenotyping
  • Aldehyde Oxidase Reaction Phenotyping


  • Brain Tissue Binding
  • Plasma Protein Binding
  • Whole Blood Binding
  • Blood to Plasma Ratio


  • Advanced Bioanalytical Method Development
  • Method Tranfer
  • Method Qualification Pharmacokinetics (PK)Services

For more information or a formal request, please send us a message and we will contact you as soon as possible: